Issue 2015-4

Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 253–274

Occurrence of the Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus in northern and central Poland

Arkadiusz Sikora, Łukasz Ławicki, Jarosław K. Nowakowski, Przemysław Żurawlew

Abstract: This paper describes the occurrence of the Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus in northern and central Poland (above 51°30’ N). In 19th century the species was probably much more abundant than at present. In 1950–2014 it was observed 171 times (in total 227 invidivuals), but only since 1980 it has been recorded almost annually. The number of observed birds varied considerably between years; most individuals (43%) were found in 2010–2014. Regular mist-netting shows a decline in the number of captured birds (16 ind. in 1961–1970 and 2 ind. in 2005–2014). The Ring Ouzel was observed most often at the coast (74% of all birds; N=168), while much less frequently in other parts of Poland: non-coastal Pomerania – 9 ind., Kujawy, Podlasie and Wielkopolska – 12 ind. in each county, Masovia and Ziemia Lubuska – 5 ind. in each county, Ziemia Łódzka – 4 ind. The species was encountered in all months except January, July and August, the most often in spring (78% of birds; N=178) and autumn (19%; N=42), and exceptionally in winter (3%; N=7). The spring migration of the species occurs in April, with a clear peak in its last decade. Some birds, mostly females, are observed also in May. A clear advancement in the timing of spring migration has been recorded (2.7 days per each 10-year period). In autumn most individuals were observed in October (83% of birds encountered in autumn), however, no clear peak was recorded. Ring Ouzels were found the most often in an open landscape (meadows, pastures etc.; 65% of individuals and 58% of records), but also in thickets, parks, avenues, gardens, orchards and wastelands (27% of individuals, 32% of records). A total of 146 observations (85%) involved single individuals, whereas groups of 2–10 ind. were counted 25 times (15% of all records). Among 159 individuals whose sex was identified, males and females constituted respectively 74% and 26%. The proportion of males was lower in Pomerania (72%; N=104) compared to other parts of Poland (91%; N=32). Among 23 birds captured at the coast the share of males was 61%, and females 39%. In spring males were observed earlier than females. Of 74 males identified to the subspecies level, all represented the northern form.

Key words: subspecies Turdus t. torquatus, northern and central Poland, migration, wintering, sex structure

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 275–286

Abundance of Rooks Corvus frugilegus and Jackdaws C. monedula on rubbish dumps in Silesia

Piotr Jadczyk

Abstract: The paper describes abundance dynamics of Rooks Corvus frugilegus and Jackdaws C. monedula, during two winters at two rubbish dumps – in Gać and Opole (Silesia, S Poland). The dumps were surveyed once per week, with species counted separately; in case of Rook, age classes were also noted. Both species were regularly present at the dumps. Their numbers peaked in the middle of the winter and on average, Rooks were more abundant than Jackdaws. The numbers depended on winter season (2007/08 and 2008/09), site and were non-linearly related to the ­average air temperature (birds were more abundant during colder periods). No relationship between snow cover and abundance was found. The percentage of immature Rooks at Gać rubbish dump was 24% during 2007/2008 winter, 40% during 2008/2009 winter and 1.7% at Opole during 2008/2009 winter. High numbers recorded during the study indicate that both sites represent attractive feeding sites for both species, particularly during cold periods.

Key words: Corvids, Corvidae, rubbish dumps, abundance, foraging, wintering

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 287–297

Abundance of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco and Ural Owl S. uralensis in fragmented forests in central Małopolska Province

Marcin Matysek, Tomasz Figarski, Paweł Wieczorek, Jakub Wyka, Łukasz Kajtoch

Abstract: The study describes distribution of territories of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco and Ural Owl S. uralensis in fragmented forests in the southern part of Kraków–Częstochowa Upland and central part of West-Carpathian Foothills in 2014–2015. In total, 114 territories of the Tawny Owl were found (average density 7.0 territories/10 km2 of forest area) and 17 territories of the Ural Owl (average density 1.0 ter./10 km2 of forest area and 1.8 ter./10 km2 of forest area considering only Foothills). Territories of the Tawny Owl were distributed uniformly, however in forests occupied simultaneously by Ural Owls, Tawny Owls territories were restricted to forest edges and smaller woods in surrounding areas. Numbers appear to remain constant in some areas compared to earlier counts from 2004–2008, while in other forests the 15% population increase was observed. Three territories of the Ural Owl, known in the past, have not been found recently (local decrease of 20%). The most probable explanation for the loss of Ural Owl territories in some woods was forest management, mainly felling systems performed in older woods. It is recommended to implement a monitoring system of both owl species in the studied area.

Key words: owls, Strigidae, West-Carpathian Foothill, Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, allopatry, sympatry

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 298–308

Breeding avifauna of the Czarna Konecka Valley – current status and population trends

Piotr Wilniewczyc, Piotr Dębowski, Maciej Kubicki

Abstract: The paper presents changes in breeding avifauna of the Valley of the Czarna Konecka (IBA PL142), an upland 85-km river, flowing mostly among forests. Recent counts from 2011 were compared predominantly with the surveys from 1993–1995. During last 20 years seven new breeding species have settled in the study area (the Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula, Little Crake Porzana parva, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea and Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis), and three have disappeared (Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa and European Roller Coracias garrulus). A total of 53% species have experienced population increase, 22% – a decline, and for 24% no significant trends have been found. The most remarkable population growth was found for the Common Merganser Mergus merganser (from 0–1 to 7–8 pairs), Crane Grus grus (from 2 to 23 pairs), Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago (from 26–27 to 46 pairs), Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus (from 8–9 to 17–19 pairs), Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus (from 5 to 21–24 pairs), Hoopoe Upupa epops (from 13–17 to 34 males), Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus (from 14–15 to 45 pairs) and Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus (from 15 to 75 males), whilst declines were reported for Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix (from 25 to 1 male), Lapwing Vanellus vanellus (from 83–87 to 11 pairs), and Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis (from 35–50 to 7–12 pairs). Changes in avifauna have been affected mostly by habitat transformations, such as succession of trees, bushes and reeds in meadows, changes of fishing practises and the increase in the area of damp and very dry habitats.

Key words: Czarna Konecka Valley, Special Protection Area, breeding birds, population
trends, survey, population monitoring

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 309–327

Influence of hunting on birds and ways of limiting its negative effects

Cezary Mitrus, Adam Zbyryt

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 328–333

Atypically singing Ortolan Buntings Emberiza hortulana in the Wielkopolska Province

Aleksandra Jakubowska, Katarzyna Łosak, Tomasz S. Osiejuk

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 334–335

Two broods of the Raven Corvus corax in one season

Janusz Stępniewski, Andrzej Łuczak

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 335–338

Three successful broods of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica in one breeding season

Kamil Kryński

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 339–344

Numbers of waterbirds on the Bay of Gdańsk between May 2014 and April 2015

Włodzimierz Meissner, Jakub Typiak, Szymon Bzoma, Andrzej Kośmicki, Cezary Wójcik

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 345–347

Needs of publications of ornithological surveys in Special Protection Areas

Grzegorz Neubauer, Arkadiusz Sikora

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 348–349

Magnus Robb & the Sound Approach. 2015. Undiscovered owls. A Sound Approach guide. 308 pp.

Tadeusz Stawarczyk

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Ornis Polonica 56, 2015: 350–351

Mystery bird 81

Jan Lontkowski

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