Issue 2018-4

Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 231–249

Woodpeckers Picidae in the agricultural landscape of the eastern part of Zamość Region

Jerzy Michalczuk, Daniel Boruchalski, Paweł Mazurek, Monika Mazurek, Monika Michalczuk, Robert Cymbała

Abstract: Numbers and distribution of woodpeckers were estimated in forests (covering about 15.6 km2) and non-forest tree stands (covering 10.4 km2) in the agricultural landscape of SE Poland in 2017. We used the combined cartographic method with voice stimulation to detect birds within 339 km2 of the study area. The dominant Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major represented 72% (N=428) of the total woodpecker community in the study area. Most territories of this species (97.7%, N=308) were located in forests, and reached the mean density of 19.3 breeding pairs/100 ha of the total forested area, and 0.91 breeding pairs/100 ha of the whole study area. All breeding territories of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocoptes medius (N=55), Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius (N=8) and Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dryobates minor (N=14) were found in forests. Densities of these species constituted respectively 3.5, 0.5 and 0.9 breeding pairs/100 ha of the forested areas and 0.16, 0.02 and 0.04 breeding pairs/100 ha of the whole study plot. In contrast, territories of the Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus and Wryneck Jynx torquilla were located mainly in isolated tree stands outside forests (respectively 92% and 94%; N=25 and N=18). These species reached a mean density of 2.2 and 1.6 breeding pairs/100 ha of the total area of tree clumps, and 0.07 and 0.05 breeding pairs/100 ha of the total research area, respectively. The study has shown that despite considerable habitat fragmentation and small areas of forest patches (in total ca. 5% of the whole study area), small forests were still the basic habitat for primary hole nesters, including woodpeckers. Isolated forest patches hosted about 89% of woodpecker population. An important role in the agricultural landscape played also non-forest tree stands (orchards, parks, tree rows and clumps, cemeteries, etc.) that were the main habitats for Syrian Woodpecker and Wryneck.

Key words: woodpeckers, hole nesters, forests, non-forest tree stands, density

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 250–263

Numbers of Garganey Spatula querquedula and Northern Shoveler S. clypeata in the Biebrza Marshes in 2018

Łukasz Krajewski

Abstract: A census of Garganeys Spatula querquedula and Northern Shovelers S. clypeatawas carried out in 1–11.05.2018 in the Natura 2000 site Ostoja Biebrzańska PLB200006 on 41 sampling plots of 1 km2, randomly selected from two layers – optimal (21 plots) and suboptimal habitats (20). A total of 117 males of Garganey and 95 males of Northern Shoveler were found, including 107 and 77 males, respectively, classified as IBP (indicative of breeding pairs). The number of Garganeys in the Biebrza Marshes was estimated at 760 males, and the number of Northern Shoveler at 490 males. Observed changes in the social structure between the first decade of April and the first decade of June suggest that the first decade of May is the optimal date for counting of these species. In comparison with 1976–1980 the numbers of Garganey have decreased by about 60%, while no declining trend has been observed for the Northern Shoveler. The decrease in the number of Garganey and the stable number of Northern Shoveler are in line with their pan-European population trends. The decline in the Garganey population is most likely due to factors operating on African wintering grounds, and to a lesser extent, factors occurring on the breeding grounds, such as the declining trend in the Biebrza spring floodwaters associated with climate warming and the abandonment of grazing and mowing of riverside meadows.

Key words: Garganey, Northern Shoveler, river valleys, population trends, Biebrza river

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 264–272

Habitat preferences of the Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes during the breeding season in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland

Przemysław Kurek, Bartosz Skowron, Tomasz Święciak

Abstract: The Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes is a boreal species with patchy distribution in Poland that has been rarely the subject of research. The aim of this project was to investigate habitat preferences of the species in an isolated population in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. In 2000–2004 we found 20 Nutcracker territories, where nesting was confirmed or probable. All territories were located in coniferous forests, dominated (at least 90% share) by the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, aged 34 years on average. There were no territories in mixed or deciduous (beech) forests. We conclude that ageing of preferred Scots pine stands may result in the population decline in the future. Counts performed in 2014–2016 in the former breeding territories revealed that only 4 of 20 sites (20%) from 2000–2004 were still occupied.

Keywords: Nutcracker, habitat preferences, pine forests, Kraków-Częstochowa Upland

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 273–290

Records of the Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella in Poland as a part of the species European irruption in 2016

Arkadiusz Sikora, Łukasz Ławicki, Krzysztof Stępniewski, Marcin Sołowiej, Paweł Malczyk, Bogusław Czerwiński, Adam Janczyszyn, Michał Barcz, Dawid Cząstkiewicz, Marcin Borowik, Tomasz Chodkiewicz

Abstract: Until recently the Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella was recorded extremely rarely outside its breeding areas in Russia. In 1800–1974 the species was observed only 5 times. In 1975–2015 the number of European records (outside Russia) increased: the species was observed 29 times (31 ind. in total). In autumn 2016 an unprecedented irruption of the Siberian Accentor in Europe was noted. A total of 231 birds were observed including 75 in Finland, 72 in Sweden, 14 in Great Britain, 13 in Denmark, 11 in Norway, 10 in Poland, 9 in Latvia, 8 in both Germany and Estonia, 4 in Lithuania and Ukraine, and single individuals in the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Most birds were recorded on the Baltic coast and in the Danish Straits (195 individuals; 84%). Most records came from the areas within 5 km of the shore and from sea islands (177 birds; 77%). The irruption peaked between 14 and 20 October, when 41% of all individuals were noted (12–16 birds/day). In October and November 95% (N=220) of all records were made, and the remaining observations (N=11) between December 2016 and March 2017. The number of re-sighted birds started to outnumber the new records starting from the second pentad of November and continued until the irruption end in March 2017. A total of 57% birds were noted on a single day, and other individuals (43%) stayed at the observation sites from 2 to 95 days. The average duration of an individual stay was 5 days. A total of 23% of individuals (N=55) were aged, and all of them were juveniles. In autumn 2016 other passerine species originating from eastern Siberia were frequently observed in Europe. The most plausible reasons for this unprecedented irruption include weather conditions, common wildfires in Siberia, eastern winds and early winter. In contrast to large numbers of Siberian Accentor observed in autumn, their numbers in winter and spring dropped heavily indicating high mortality and/or their return to the east.

Keywords: Siberian Accentor, Prunella montanella, reasons of irruption, wildfires, winds

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 291–296

Diet composition of the Pygmy Owl Glaucidium passerinum in the Augustów Forest (NE Poland)

Grzegorz Zawadzki, Anna Sołtys, Dorota Zawadzka

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 297–299

Establishing of the Rare Birds Panels in Poland

Komisja Faunistyczna SO PTZool, Kartoteka Rzadkich Ptaków

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 300–301

Pinowski J.K. 2018. Z ptakami przez życie. Autobiografia ornitologa-ekologa. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa. 610 pp. ISBN 978-83-88147-20-3

Piotr Tryjanowski

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Ornis Polonica 2018, 59: 302–304

Kruszewicz A.G., Czujkowska A. 2018. Ornitologia nie tylko dla myśliwych. Tom I. Oficyna Wydawnicza Oikos, Warszawa. 482 pp. ISBN 978-83-64843-13-6

Tadeusz Stawarczyk

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