Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 75–84
Restoration of the tree-nesting population of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in Pomerania
Łukasz Ławicki, Sławomir Sielicki
Abstract: Until the 1940s the Peregrine Falcon regularly nested in Pomerania (NW Poland), but after the population crash in the 1950s (as a result of DDT use) last nests were recorded in 1957 and 1958. The restoration of the population has been observed since the beginning of the 21 century, mainly due to the reintroduction programme of the species in Poland and Germany. In 2001–2018 a total of 18 breeding localities were found in Pomerania, including 9 each in forests and urban areas. Most of them were located in western Pomerania along the boundary with Germany, and the remaining ones on industrial chimneys at the coast. The Peregrine Falcon population hosted 3 pairs in 2001–2011, and then reached 7 pairs in 2013–2014, 11 in 2015 and 13–16 pairs in 2016–2018. Currently the Pomeranian birds constitute ca. 35% of Polish population (about 40 pairs). In 2012–2018 at least 6 breeding localities included birds originating from Germany (3 each in trees and building).
Key words: Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus, Pomerania, restoration of population, reintroduction, tree-nesting
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 85–102
Avifauna of the SPA Natura 2000 Kamień Lagoon and Dziwna River – current status and changes in 1979–2018
Dominik Marchowski, Jacek Kaliciuk, Łukasz Ławicki
Abstract: The inventories compiled in 2012 and 2015 showed that the SPA Natura 2000 the Kamień Lagoon and the Dziwna River is a significant breeding site in Poland (> 1% of the national population) for 7 species of birds: the Mute Swan Cygnus olor (42–52 pairs; 1%), Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna (4–5 pairs; 3.5%), Gadwall Mareca strepera (39–65 pairs; 1.5%), Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus (202–259 pairs; 1.2%), Grey Heron Ardea cinerea (95–237 pairs; 1.8%), Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (2,541–2,963 pairs; 9.2%) and Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus (47–80 pairs; 3.0%). Changes in numbers across 1979–2015 were determined for 53 species. The increase in population size was found for 18 species, the decrease for 17, while populations of 14 species were assessed as stable or fluctuating. The temporal trend was not determined for 4 species. Monitoring in 2002–2018 confirmed the importance of the SPA for waterbirds during migration and wintering. The mean number (± SE) of recorded birds between November and March was 11,463 ± 977 ind. (including 14,294 ± 2,047 ind. observed in autumn, 8,654 ± 1,721 ind. in winter, and 11,440 ± 721 ind. in spring). The highest number of birds (33,597 ind.) was recorded in November 2011. The most numerous species were: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (mean 2,214 ± 447 ind.), Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula (1,549 ± 301 ind.), Bean Goose Anser fabalis sensu lato (1,529 ± 280 ind.), Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (1,491 ± 209 ind.), Great Cormorant (709 ± 124 ind.), Goosander Mergus merganser (603 ± 157 ind.) and Greylag Goose A. anser (516 ± 121 ind.). Six species met the criteria for the Important Bird Areas, which should concentrate at least 1% of their flyway population: the Whooper Swan C. cygnus (580 ind.; 1%), Bean Goose sensu lato (7,700 ind.; 1.4%), Smew Mergellus albellus (1,000 ind.; 2.5%), Goosander (5,000 ind.; 1.8%), Great Cormorant (10,000 ind.; 2.6%) and Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus (6,400 ind.; 6.4%). The number of Eurasian Coots (15,600 ind.; 0.9%) was close to the threshold of this criterion. The uncontrolled built-up of the shoreline, water sports in the areas of bird concentrations and the bird mortality in fishing nets have been recognized as the most important threats to the avifauna of the SPA. The management plan prepared in 2013 has not been implemented so far, which prevents the effective management of the SPA and may result in the low conservation effectiveness of the key bird species.
Key words: Kamień Lagoon, Odra estuary, Natura 2000 network, waterbirds, trends, monitoring, threats
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 103–123
The importance of dam reservoirs in the Polish Carpathians for migrating and wintering waterbirds
Tomasz Wilk, Rafał Bobrek, Aleksandra Pępkowska-Król
Abstract: To determine the significance of dam reservoirs of the Polish Carpathians for migrating and wintering waterbirds, monthly bird counts were conducted on the 12 largest reservoirs from August to March in the years 2011–2015. In total, 239,501 individuals of 75 waterbird species were recorded during 4 seasons. The most numerous species was the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (41.2% of all birds), and the group of dominants included also the Common Gull Larus canus, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Caspian Gull L. cachinnans, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula, Mute Swan Cygnus olor and Coot Fulica atra. The average number of individuals observed during a single count on all reservoirs was 7,983. Usually less than 1,000 birds were found during a count on a single reservoir, and the highest numbers reached 4–6 thousands on the Żywiecki, Dobczycki and Czchowski reservoirs. The assemblage of waterbirds reached the highest numbers in November–January, and peaked in December. Much more birds were recorded during mild winters (up to 12,484 birds in January 2014) than in colder ones. The regional importance of the Carpathian dam reservoirs for waterbirds is high, especially for Mute Swan, diving ducks, mergansers, gulls, Coot, and Great Cormorant. At a national scale, their role during the migration period is small, but in the case of some reservoirs, their significance as wintering grounds is important for some species, such as Mute Swan, Tufted Duck, Goldeneye Bucephala clangula and Common Gull. Despite the importance of dam reservoirs for waterbirds in the area of the Polish Carpathians, their creation cannot be considered as a conservation measure protecting natural resources, due to the degradation caused in river ecosystems.
Key words: Carpathians, dam reservoirs, migration, wintering, waterbirds
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 125–160
Rare birds recorded in Poland in 2018
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 161–164
Nesting of the Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus in the valley of the Ina River (NW Poland)
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 165–168
Hybrid of the Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus and Black Redstart Ph. ochruros in Ciechanów and identification of hybrids