Issue 2021-3

Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 169–188

Reproductive ecology and abundance of the Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans at Mietków Reservoir in 2019–2020

Marcin Przymencki, Klaudia Litwiniak, Magdalena Zagalska-Neubauer, Grzegorz Neubauer

Abstract: The Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans is a large gull species, which expands its breeding area in Europe and increases in numbers. The first Polish breeding records of the species come from the early 1980s, and its current population is estimated at 3000–3500 breeding pairs. Despite its widespread occurrence on the continent, the species reproductive ecology has not been well described, and many aspects of its biology still remain unknown. In 2019–2020 we studied the breeding ecology of the Caspian Gull at Mietków Reservoir (Lower Silesia). We recorded a minimum of 260 breeding pairs in 2019 and at least 190 pairs in 2020. Birds started nesting in the first decade of April. Dimensions of nests (medians) were as follows: outer diameter – 47 cm, inner diameter – 23 cm, height – 7 cm, depth – 7 cm. Mean volume of the first eggs, called A-eggs was 84.4 cm3, B-eggs – 82.3 cm3 and C-eggs – 76.6 cm3. Length, width and volume of eggs tended to decrease with the increasing laying date. The full clutch volume was 241.2 cm3 and 245.2 cm3 in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Relative volumes of C-egg in clutches constituted 0.91 and 0.93 of the mean volume of A- and B-eggs in the two study years, respectively. In both study years 15.5–15.9% of eggs from 25.6–32.1% of clutches were lost, and 2.43–2.48 chicks per a breeding pair hatched. In 2019 the daily chick survival rate was estimated at ~0.95, while the probability of the nestling survival until the age of 22 days after hatching was ~0.36 (before the flooding of the colony due to heavy rainfall). The second (after 17 May) flooding of the colony resulted in the death of more than 90% of nestlings. In 2020 the survival rate of the young was lower and more variable than the year before, and the probability of survival until the 17th day of life was only ~0.23. We compare our data with the results obtained in other colonies in Poland and Ukraine.

Keywords: Caspian Gull, Larus cachinnans, breeding ecology, abundance, Mietków Reservoir

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Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 189–209

Species composition and number of birds observed in arable fields of the Lublin region

Marcin Polak

Abstract: This paper presents the results of bird counts carried out in 2008–2019 in arable fields in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). The survey was conducted during the whole year using the point method. In total, 374 one–hour counts were carried out at 76 points located throughout the region. During the research a total of 80,386 individuals of 137 species, belonging to 16 orders, were detected. The Starling Sturnus vulgaris was the most numerous species (25%); the dominant group included also the Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (11%), Lapwing Vanellus vanellus (11%), Skylark Alauda arvensis (6%) and Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria (5%). During a single count, 1 to 3,094 birds (mean=215.7 individuals; 95% CI: 353.5–408.1; N=374) of 1 to 30 species (mean ± SD=12.6 ± 5.8) were recorded. In the annual cycle, most birds were observed during autumn migration. Abundant marginal elements of the landscape (such as hedgerows, bushes, woodlots and field ponds), high habitat diversity and fertile soils in the Lublin region contributed to the high species richness. The highest species richness was recorded in the Volhyn-Podole Upland. The survey provided evidence that farmlands were widely used by species inhabiting other types of habitats, especially during migration.

Key words: farmland, point counts, Lublin region, annual cycle

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Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 210–242

Rare Birds Panel in Poland – report of 2019 for non-breeding species

Abstract: The presented second report of the Rare Birds Panel in Poland includes the data from 2019. The report presents data on 38 rare non-breeding species. In 2019 high or maximum numbers were recorded for e.g. Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis, Canada Goose B. canadensis, Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca, Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta, Little Egret Egretta garzetta, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus, Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides, Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus (outside mountains) and Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus. On the other hand, the relatively low numbers, compared to long-term data, were recorded for e.g. the Brent Goose B. bernicla bernicla, Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea, Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris and Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus.

Key words: rare non-breeding bird species, distribution, number, phenology, Poland, report 2019

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Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 243–249

The first records of roof-top nesting by Caspian Gulls Larus cachinnans in Poland with reference to other cases in Europe

Jan Rapczyński, Klaudia Litwiniak, Marcin Przymencki

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Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 249–256

Abundance of the European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus in the Masovian Landscape Park

Ignacy Gołębiewski

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Ornis Polonica 2021, 62: 256–258

The Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus on the national bird list

Tadeusz Stawarczyk, Marcin Faber

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