Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 169–180
Variation in habitat use by the Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix in the Biebrza Valley in different phenological periods
Abstract: Galliformes are currently one of the most endangered bird groups in Poland. Human activity resulting in a significant transformation and depletion of the environment, and simplification of the landscape structure are among the main reasons for the decline in the species numbers. The Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix is one of the fastest disappearing species in Poland. Its number has decreased in the last 40 years from almost 40 000 to about 300–400 individuals. To preserve this species, its effective protection is necessary. For this reason, it seems particularly important to precisely define the key elements of the environment preferred by the black grouse, including the non-breeding period. This research analyses the seasonal variability of the Black Grouse habitat preferences in the Biebrza Valley, one of the last lowland refuges of this species in Central Europe. The results show that the Black Grouse requires the presence of (i) extensive, preferably wet, open areas used as spring lek arenas and autumn feeding grounds, (ii) relatively dry areas, convenient for breeding, leading the chicks and moulting – especially during the breeding season, in summer, and to a lesser extent during the non-breeding period, especially in autumn, and (iii) young tree stands serving as winter food resource.
Key words: Black Grouse, threats, habitat preferences, seasonal variability, phenological periods
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 181–196
Spring and autumn migrations of corvids Corvidae in the Carpathians
Rafał Bobrek, Tomasz Wilk, Aleksandra Pępkowska-Król
Abstract: The paper presents the results of counts of corvids in the Polish Carpathians, conducted in autumn (2011–2013) and spring (2015) in 28 and 12 observation points, respectively. Based on the seasonal dynamics of bird observations, changes in the flock sizes and recorded flight directions, an attempt was made to assess whether the seasonal migration of particular species occurred in the region. The results indicate the existence of a clear passage of the Jay Garrulus glandarius in spring, as well as the Jackdaw Corvus monedula and Rook C. frugilegus in autumn, with only the latter species migrating intensively. The directions of flights allowed to assume that Jackdaws and Rooks migrating through the studied region could reach both western and southern European wintering grounds. These two species passed through the Carpathians probably also in spring, but at that time of year their migration was weakly marked. The autumn migration of Jays is likely, but not certain. We did not find convincing evidence for the passage of three species (Magpie Pica pica, Raven C. corax and Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes) considered as non-migratory. The seasonal changes in the frequency of observations of these three species may be explained by the changes in their activity, behaviour or flocking tendency across the year. The pattern of the Hooded Crow C. cornix records was difficult to interpret, and did not allow for a reliable assessment of its migratoriness. Seasonal dynamics of the increased observation frequency of Jay and Nutcracker in the Carpathians coincided with the peak periods of the invasive movements of these species recorded in Central Europe. However, no significant differences were found in the abundance of these species between the study seasons.
Key words: Corvids, migratoriness, sedentariness, nomadic and invasive movements, migration, directions of passage, mountains
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 197–210
Breeding avifauna of the SPA Wkrzańska Forest
Łukasz Ławicki, Sebastian Guentzel, Marcin Sołowiej
Abstract: In 2015 selected breeding bird species were investigated in the SPA Wkrzańska Forest in NW Poland (146 km2, 92% of total forest area). In total, 17 species from the EU Birds Directive Appendix 1 and 6 listed in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals, were classified as breeders. This area is a significant breeding site in Poland for the Gadwall Mareca strepera (17–21 pairs; 0.5% of the national population), European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus (34–101 pairs; 0.8%), White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (7–8 pairs; 0.6%), Boreal Owl Aegolius funereus (10 territories; 0.5%) and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (1 pair; 2.5%). Relatively large regional populations (at Pomerania scale) of the Stock Dove Columba oenas (54–63 pairs), Common Crane Grus grus (43–49 pairs), Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus (27–33 pairs), Red Kite Milvus milvus (6–7 pairs), Eurasian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis (26–32 pairs), Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius (77–112 pairs) and Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocoptes medius (32–38 pairs) inhabit the SPA Wkrzańska Forest. Forest management serves as the most important threat to the key breeding species of the studied SPA.
Key words: Wkrzańska Forest, Odra estuary, Natura 2000 network, Important Bird Area, raptors, changes in numbers, forest management
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 211–220
Numbers of some breeding bird species in the valley of the Gwda river and its tributaries
Abstract: This paper presents the numbers of 5 waterbird species counted in the Gwda river and its tributaries (the Piława, Plitnica, Rurzyca, Głomia) of the total length of 214 km. The rivers flow through forested areas. The slope of their beds ranges from 0.30 to 1.54‰. In 2019 within the whole surveyed area we found 33–40 pairs of Goldeneyes Bucephala clangula (1% of the national population), 24–30 pairs of Common Mergansers Mergus merganser (1–2% of the national population), 49 pairs of Common Kingfishers Alcedo atthis (0.8–2.0% of the national population), 83–89 pairs of Grey Wagtails Motacilla cinerea (0.9–1.3% of Polish population) and about 1025 pairs of Bank Swallows Riparia riparia (0.3–0.7% of the national population). The Gwda basin plays an important role for the five studied species at the national scale. The density of Bank Swallows was the highest among the ones reported so far from the natural habitats of the Odra basin.
Key words: catchment area of the Noteć river, SPA Forest at Gwda River, breeding birds, waterbirds
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 221–223
Urban breeding colony of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea in Wrocław
Marcin Przymencki, Klaudia Litwiniak, Damian Celiński
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 224–226
Third record of the Melodious Warbler Hippolais polygotta in Poland
Ornis Polonica 2019, 60: 227–233
Numbers of waterbirds on the Bay of Gdańsk between September 2018 and April 2019
Włodzimierz Meissner, Katarzyna Stępniewska, Sabina Kaszak, Andrzej Kośmicki, Adam Janczyszyn, Maciej Kozakiewicz