Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 149–161
Expansion of the Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus in Europe
and Western Asia
Abstract: The Syrian Woodpecker has been colonizing SE Europe for more than 100 years. It has already colonized SE Poland, but northern and western Poland are still outside its regular range. Frequent nesting at the edge of stable breeding population range and incidental cases of breeding far away from its regular breeding range show that the Syrian Woodpecker expansion may be explained by a diffusion and scattered colony model. However, unsuccessful cases of establishing local populations distant from a regular breeding range suggest that there are some ecological barriers limiting adaptation capacity of this synanthropic species. The Syrian Woodpecker expansion rate slowed down at the beginning of the 21st century. Nowadays the Syrian Woodpecker west distribution range spreads out from West Poland across the central region of the Czech Republic up to the eastern part of Austria and Slovenia. It may have resulted from the population decline and lower number of immigrants supplying edge populations from the source population in the SE Poland. Currently, the colonization of new areas proceeds dynamically in eastern Europe, mainly in Russia.
Key words: Syrian Woodpecker, Dendrocopos syriacus, woodpeckers, expansion, colonization
Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 162–172
Breeding ecology of the Black Tern Chlidonias niger in the Bug Valley
Artur Goławski, Emilia Mróz, Zbigniew Kasprzykowski, Katarzyna Słupska, Ewa Droś, Paweł Żmińczuk
Abstract: This paper presents basic breeding parameters of the Black Tern Chlidonias niger studied in 2007–2008 in the valley of lower Bug river in central-eastern Poland. About 240 pairs nested in colonies located at three old river-beds, and 122 clutches were followed and described. The average distance between neighbouring nests was 3.3 m. Outer nest diameter was on average 14.2 cm, the inner one – 8.1 cm, nest depth – 14.7 mm, and nest height above water level – 30.8 mm. First eggs were laid between 13 May and 17 June (mean 22 May). Most clutches contained three eggs. The average egg length was 34.8 mm, width 25.2 mm, while the volume 11.0 cm3. At least one nestling hatched in 75% of nests. The mean number of hatched young per nest was 2.1 and for successful nest – 2.6. Nestlings hatched between 4 June and 9 July. Main reasons for nest failures were nest desertion (55%), nest flooding (28%) and predation (17%). The studied population of the Black Tern, inhabiting natural habitats in the Bug Valley, had relatively high breeding densities compared to other populations in Europe, Asia and North America. Birds started to breed relatively early and hatching success was high. All these data indicate good breeding conditions in the valley of lower Bug river.
Key words: Black Tern, Chlidonias niger, tern colony, breeding ecology
Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 173–180
Numbers and distribution of owls in Wrocław in 1995–2012
Katarzyna Turzańska, Paulina Turowicz
Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the numbers and distribution of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco, Lhort-eared Owl Asio otus and Little Owl Athene noctua in the area of Wrocław (south-west Poland, 293 km2). The research was conducted in 2012, standard methods of owl detection were used. A total of 90 territories of the Tawny Owl (3,1 territory/10 km2) and 19 territories of the Long-eared Owl (0,6 territory/10 km2) were recorded. No presence of the Little Owl within the city boundaries was detected. The results suggest the presence of a stable Tawny Owl population and a decline of the Long-eared Owl and Little Owl populations in comparison with 1995 and 2001 censuses. The Tawny Owl and the Long-eared Owl densities in Wrocław were two or three times higher than in Warsaw, Poznań and Łódź. No occurrence of the Little Owl confirms the decline of this species recorded in Europe and big cities of Poland.
Key words: Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, owls in cities, birds in cities
Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 181–218
Rare birds recorded in Poland in 2013
Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 219–224
Breeding colonies of the White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus, Black Tern Ch. niger and Whiskered Tern Ch. hybrida on Mazowsze Lowland in 2013
Andrzej Dombrowski, Artur Goławski, Zbigniew Kasprzykowski, Emilia Mróz, Agnieszka Parapura, Łukasz Trębicki, Mirosław Rzępała, Michał Anielak, Krzysztof Antczak, Sławomir Chmielewski, Marek Długosiewicz, Adam Dmoch, Szymon Kielan, Rafał Klimczak, Łukasz Matyjasiak, Marek Murawski, Stanisław Oszkiel, Adam Olszewski, Marcin Rejmer, Piotr Pagórski, Magdalena Sikora, Przemysław Stolarz, Piotr Szczypiński, Ewa Szczepankiewicz, Karol Trzciński, Marek Twardowski, Tomasz Wiewiórko, Hanna Żelichowska
Ornis Polonica 2014, 55: 225–226
Mystery bird 76